@article {601,
title = {THE VALIDITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICS INDEPENDENT LEARNING MODEL TO IMPROVE PHYSICS PROBLEM SOLVING AND SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING SKILLS OF STUDENTS IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEMS},
journal = {Journal of Baltic Science Education},
volume = {16},
year = {2017},
month = {October/2017},
pages = {Continuous},
type = {Original article},
chapter = {651-665},
abstract = {The Physics Independent Learning (PIL) model is an authentic problem-based model designed teaching guide for improving self-directed learning and problem-solving skills in open and distance education. This research is aimed to analyze the validity and effectiveness of PIL model. This research was conducted using focus group discussions of experts that consisted of three science education experts and applies quasi-experiment of one group pre-test and post-test design to 144 students in East Java, Indonesia. Before applying the lesson using the PIL model, the students are given pre-test and after accomplishing the learning, the students are given post-test. The data collected from pre-test and post-test then is further analyzed by means of validity coefficient (rα), Cronbach{\textquoteright}s alpha (α), pair t-test, n-gain and ANOVA. The result of research shows that rα = .75 and α = .92 is for content validity; rα = .79 and α = .99 is for construct validity, so that PIL model is validity and reliability qualified. In addition, there are increasing scores of physics problem solving skills and self-directed learning skills of α = 5\% with moderate category of n-gain consistent in a limited trial test and of high category in a broader trial test for all groups.},
keywords = {Electricity, magnetism, model effectiveness, model validity, physics problem-solving skills, PIL model, self-directed learning skills},
issn = {1648-3898},
url = {http://oaji.net/articles/2017/987-1509213674.pdf},
author = {Paken Pandiangan and I Gusti Made Sanjaya and Budi Jatmiko}
}